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By J. Jack. Kendall College.

Nevertheless cheap 10 mg cialis with visa erectile dysfunction 18, it is difficult to imagine that it would be necessary to spend more than a few minutes in an overcrowded curriculum on such tuition discount cialis 10mg amex erectile dysfunction doctor toronto. Such skills fall into the category of things that can be learned by observation and reflection in clinical situations, not taught in a classroom (McCormick 1996). Indeed the very attempt to teach them in such a formal way underestimates the subtleties of doctor-patient communication which generations of doctors have painstakingly acquired through the sort of apprenticeship experience that is now so disparaged. The net effect of the promotion of comic- book communication skills is to elevate the banal while degrading what is profound in medical practice (Willis 1995:127). Clinical governance Clinical governance means the extension into the medical world of new mechanisms of regulation through audit that have been developed in business. These amount, according to Michael Power, professor of accountancy at the London School of Economics, to ‘the spread of a distinct mentality of administrative control, a pervasive logic which has a life of its own over and above specific practices’ (Power 1994). Power describes an ‘audit explosion’ in the late 1980s and early 1990s, as the term ‘began to be used in Britain with growing frequency in a wide variety of contexts’ (Power 1997: 3). A perception of a general deterioration in professional confidence and public trust in business and in services, in both private and public sectors, resulted in a quest for external guarantees of quality and probity. But audit is not a neutral process: when people subject their work to external monitoring, they inevitably find that this process leads to a reorganisation of their work to comply with the requirements of audit. As Power writes, ‘audit is not simply a solution to a technical problem; it also makes possible ways of redesigning the process of government’ (Power 1997:11). Though audit is designed to reassure, Power argues that it has ambivalent implications for relations of trust. Where trust is lacking, people hope that it can be restored through audit. The audit society tends to create ‘an inflationary spiral’ of trust in more remote sources of reassurance, or to put it another way, it fosters increasing distrust: 151 THE CRISIS OF MODERN MEDICINE Assumptions of distrust sustaining audit processes may be self-fulfilling as auditees adapt their behaviour strategically in response to the audit process, thereby becoming less trustworthy. In a detailed study of the impact of the ideology of audit on the world of health, Power notes that this has created ‘an enormous environmental disturbance’ (Power 1997:108). He comments on the attempt to adapt medical audit to managerial purposes that this ‘fragile practice’ was ‘never intended as a public accountability device’ (Power 1997:109). As medical audit has been assimilated into clinical governance, concerns about the quality of patient care have become subordinate to the managerial performance imperatives. Power concludes that faith in audit as a means of regulating medical performance reflects wider social anxieties, affecting doctors and patients as well as managers and politicians, and the ‘need to create images of control in the face of risk’ (Power 1997: 121). Other commentators have warned that this process may have adverse effects producing ‘inspection overload’ and irrevocable damage to cultures of trust (Day, Klein 1990). The processes of clinical governance are not only time- consuming, but potentially demoralising, as the presence of a shadowy third party in doctor-patient relations has a subtly corrosive effect on professional authority. Some have expressed concerns that guidelines can stifle innovation and encourage defensive practice (this is certainly likely to increase if departures from national guidelines become the basis for litigation) (Fletcher, Fletcher 1990). Others fear that ‘insufficient attention will be paid to the sometimes nebulous concepts of trust and culture in a headlong rush for the more tangible appeals of measurement, monitoring and coercive control mechanisms’ (Davies, Mannion 1999). In a brief commentary on ‘the perils of checklist medicine’, London GP Iona Heath has pointed out some of the dangers of the preoccupation with guidelines on doctor-patient relationships (Heath 152 THE CRISIS OF MODERN MEDICINE 1995). As she observes, ‘guidelines are constructed from evidence from research derived from studies of populations and are predicated on the notion of a composite patient which may have little immediate relevance to the troubled person who presents in the consulting room’. She warns that guidelines ‘depersonalise individual patients and turn them into diseases’ and that the managerial use of guidelines to monitor practice ‘implies levels of coercion and control which are potentially destructive of the fragile good that is the doctor-patient relationship’. Revalidation The proposed system of revalidation will have far-reaching consequences for the professional standing of doctors and for our relations with our patients.

X If you are interested in writing an article for a journal discount cialis 5mg free shipping erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy, do your market research buy cialis 5mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction cancer. Make sure that the subject matter, style, structure and length of your article suit the journal. X Try to seek advice and comments from people experi- enced in writing journal articles. If you were to do so, your work would reach a wider audience than it might do otherwise. Arrive early, make sure equipment works and that you have everything you need. X Show that you are interested in what you are saying and try to keep audience interest by using visual aids and altering tone, pitch and gestures. X Don’t shrug off questions or patronise your audience – pitch your presentation at the right level. X Never let an audience leave without taking away a re- cord of what you have said. If we expect them to give up their valuable time to help us, it follows that we should offer them something in return. Many people are willing to disclose a lot of personal in- formation during our research so we need to make sure that we treat both the participants and the information they provide with honesty and respect. TREATING PARTICIPANTS WITH RESPECT As a researcher you must remember that the research pro- cess intrudes on people’s lives. Some of the people who take part in your research may be vulnerable because of their age, social status or position of powerlessness. If par- ticipants are young, you need to make sure a parent or guardian is present. If participants are ill or reaching old age you might need to use a proxy and care should be taken to make sure that you do not affect the relation- ship between the proxy and the participant. Some people may find participation a rewarding process, whereas others will not. Your research should not give rise to false hopes or cause unnecessary anxiety. You must 146 HOW TO BE AN ETHICAL RESEARCHER/ 147 try to minimise the disruption to people’s lives and if someone has found it an upsetting experience you should find out why and try to ensure that the same situation does not occur again. As a researcher you will encounter awkward situations, but good preparation and self-awareness will help to re- duce these. If they do happen, you should not dwell too long on the negative side – reflect, analyse, learn by your mistakes and move on. However, information given by research partici- pants in confidence does not enjoy legal privilege. If you’re dealing with very sensitive informa- tion which you know could be called upon by a court of law, you will need to inform your participants that you would be obliged to hand over the information. OVERT AND COVERT RESEARCH Overt research means that it is open, out in the public and that everyone knows who you are and what you are doing. Covert research means that you are doing it under cover, that no one knows you are a researcher or what you are doing. In my opinion covert research should be kept to a minimum – there are enough journalists and television personalities doing this kind of undercover, sensationalist work. Covert research In the past researchers have justified their covert work by 148 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS saying that it has been the only way to find out what goes on in a particular organisation that would not otherwise let a researcher enter. Such work has been carried out within re- ligious cults and within warring gangs of young people.

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In other words order cialis 20mg erectile dysfunction treatment photos, an individual’s “commitment to a healer/client relationship buy 5mg cialis overnight delivery erectile dysfunction medication prices,” in particular, is instrumental in the adoption of alternative belief systems (Deierlein 1994:180). Deepening commitment to alternative ideology is, in turn, what propels people along the continuum of identity change. For example, it was the intensity of Marie’s belief in alternative therapies that inspired her to become an alternative practitioner: “I became a certified reflexologist because I believe in those things so much” (emphasis mine). CHANGES IN SELF-PERCEPTION Adopting a healer identity was one type of self-change experienced by the people who took part in this study; however, it was not the only one. For many informants, participation in alternative therapies, and adoption of alternative health and healing ideologies, led to changes in their subjective perceptions of self. In particular, it allowed them to re-define aspects of personal identity, that “unique collection of life history items that comes to be attached to the individual” (Goffman 1963:57). That participation in alternative approaches to health care can have this effect has been observed in other research on the users of alternative therapies (Csordas 1983; Easthope 1993; Glik 1988 1990; McGuire 1983, 1987; Pawluch et al. For instance, in describing the use of creative visualization among participants in a metaphysical healing group (MHG), Glik (1988:1201) reports that “In MHGs images of light emanating from and surrounding the self protected from dark forces and to some degree transformed self and others” (emphasis mine). According to Natalie, “I heard about that [course] through the healing circle; somebody mentioned to me that they were going to take it. Some told me that using alternative therapies altered their entire lives or their whole selves. Others perceived these changes to self to have occurred primarily on the level of their value systems or their personalities. For instance, some informants felt that using alternative approaches to health and healing impacted on their lives in some fundamental and per- vasive way. In Hanna’s words, The idea is that since you’re affecting the whole nervous system and hence the whole body you can have profound physical and emotional change happening. If I have a holistic perspective I know that I’m also working with someone’s emotions and their whole self.... It’s not like you’re just doing a physical thing: you change them emotionally and you change their attitude. Natalie also told me that her alternative therapies are oriented towards healing a person’s whole life: “Their life, mentally and physically and spiritually. For example, Roger told me the following: Alternative Healing and the Self | 87 I quickly saw that it had applications for the work I was doing with the handicapped people, just for working on the general organization of the nervous system, the musculature, the organization of the person in general. One of the reasons I think that the Feldenkrais work touched me so personally when I experienced the work were some of the effects on just balancing and organizing the system, the nervous system, the person. Changes in Personality Almost all of the people who spoke with me felt that their use of alternative therapies resulted in changes to one or more aspects of their personalities. For instance, Laura felt she had gained confidence and become a more assertive person through her use of alternative therapies: “At the time I wasn’t a very assertive person, I don’t believe that any more about myself.... For example, Pam believed that an alternative approach resulted in what she saw as a remarkable change in her daughter’s entire personality: I removed all the wheat that you could just see, the bread, the buns. And within three weeks there was a remarkable change, change in personality, the temper tantrums left, the disorganization left. Hanna also believed that several aspects of her personality had changed and that she had become a calmer, more tolerant, more contented, and a less worried person: I’m a lot more level.

They could have put a window there that people in wheelchairs and on walkers could walk up to and get a cup of coffee cialis 2.5mg amex erectile dysfunction green tea. order cialis 2.5mg erectile dysfunction drugs compared... They’ve left out a lot of things, like railings on the wall you can hold onto. They’re supposed to 126 / Outside Home—at Work and in Communities cater to handicapped people. Handicapped people don’t need special privi- leges, but the hospital should make it easy for them to get around. If I didn’t have good doctors, I’d go somewhere else, some- where they cater to sick people. Preconceptions about using wheelchairs, for example, typically convey dismal dependence and limited lives. Actual experiences often differ significantly from these unhappy ex- pectations. For people with progressive chronic impairments, Sontag’s term “ill- ness” holds layered meanings. Melinda Whittier, a physi- atrist, “By and large, people with walking problems have some disease pro- cess. In contrast, for people with chronic conditions, physical function can decline slowly over years or decades. Some people rarely feel acutely ill, as they would with a high fever or asthma attack. Depending on the un- derlying cause, conditions can wax and wane, with flares and remissions. Nevertheless, at some point, almost everybody seeks medical attention, having their passports stamped by the gatekeeper of the kingdom of the sick—the physician. Sally Ann Jones, now in her mid fifties, traces early MS symptoms to age nineteen. Over the decades, her MS has periodically flared, confining her to bed and hospitalizing her once or twice. Jones has popped back and forth across the borders of Sontag’s kingdoms, with physicians’ pronouncements marking major transitions. The first and 127 128 People Talking to Their Physicians arguably most important was being diagnosed with MS in her early thir- ties. Jones had visited her general practitioner complaining of weak- ness and numbness in her legs. The good news is, when I saw you before, I wrote down three potential diagnoses in my notes. Today’s immunologic therapies, which slow disease pro- gression for some patients, were years away. Jones’s opinion of physicians: “General doctors don’t want to bother with MS. Even though MS affects your whole body, general doctors don’t know what to do about it. Sally Ann herself requested physical therapy, and Chet researched scooters. Jones has had trouble standing and pivoting; she needs assistance using the toilet and has hired home help.


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