By M. Potros. University of Central Oklahoma.
However buy nizagara 25mg best erectile dysfunction pills review, clients with chronic lung disease purchase nizagara 100mg free shipping erectile dysfunction doctor philadelphia, who usually have excessive secretions, tend to retain them with the consequence of frequent respiratory tract infections. Urinary retention This reaction is caused by loss of bladder tone and is most likely to occur in elderly men with enlarged prostate glands. Hot, dry skin; fever; heat stroke These effects are due to decreased sweating and impairment of the normal heat loss mechanism. Heat stroke is more likely to occur with cardiovascular disease, strenuous physical activity, and high environmental temperatures, especially in elderly people. Ocular effects-mydriasis, blurred vision, photophobia These are adverse effects when anticholinergic drugs are given for conditions not related to the eyes. Drugs that increase effects of anticholinergic drugs: Anti- These drugs have anticholinergic properties and produce additive histamines, disopyramide, phenothiazines, thioxanthene agents, anticholinergic effects. Drugs that decrease effects of anticholinergic drugs: Cholin- These drugs counteract the inhibition of gastrointestinal motility ergic drugs and tone induced by atropine. What treatment measures are indicated for a client with an Nursing Notes: Apply Your Knowledge overdose of a drug with anticholinergic effects? Name two other commonly used drug groups that have Answer: Although anticholinergic medications are no longer anticholinergic effects. What nursing observations and interventions are needed to some preoperative situations when decreased secretions in the increase client safety and comfort during anticholinergic respiratory tract are important. Vagal stimulation causes bradycardia and hypotension, and in severe cases can result in cardiac arrest. If it cannot be deter- of emergency cardiovascular care for health care providers. Miller has open-angle or closed-angle glaucoma, American Heart Association. Under what circumstances is it desirable to administer basis for disease in adults and children, 4th ed. Describe general characteristics and functions adenosine monophosphate and calcium within of hormones. Differentiate between physiologic and pharma- relation to site of action and pharmacokinetics. For example, lung tumors may produce corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH]), The endocrine system participates in the regulation of es- antidiuretic hormone, or parathyroid hormone; kidney tumors sentially all body activities, including metabolism of nutri- may produce parathyroid hormone. The usual effects are those ents and water, reproduction, growth and development, and of excess hormone secretion. This chapter focuses on the traditional endocrine organs The major organs of the endocrine system are the hypothal- and their hormones. Speciﬁc organs are discussed in the fol- amus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, pancreas, adrenals, lowing chapters; general characteristics of the endocrine sys- ovaries, and testes. These tissues function through hormones, tem and hormones are described in the following sections and substances that are synthesized and secreted into body ﬂuids in Box 22–1. Hormones act as chemical messengers to transmit information between body cells and organs. Most hormones ENDOCRINE SYSTEM– from the traditional endocrine glands are secreted into the NERVOUS SYSTEM INTERACTIONS bloodstream and act on distant organs.
When INH is given cheap nizagara 100mg free shipping men's health erectile dysfunction pills, people who drink alcoholic bever- with preexisting liver impairment unless it is considered ab- ages daily are most likely to sustain serious liver impairment buy generic nizagara 50mg on line erectile dysfunction causes stress. For clients without liver impairment, clini- For treatment of active disease caused by drug-susceptible cal monitoring for signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity are organisms, INH, rifampin, and pyrazinamide are given, as in recommended every 2 weeks. If signiﬁcant symptoms or eleva- icity, liver function tests should be monitored and the drugs tions of serum ALT and AST occur, the drug must be stopped. Home Care The home care nurse has major roles to play in the health care Use in Renal Impairment of clients, families, and communities. With individual clients receiving antitubercular drugs for latent or active infection, Rifampin is mainly eliminated by the liver. However, up to the home care nurse needs to assist in taking the drugs as di- 30% of a dose is excreted by the kidneys and dose reduction rected. Speciﬁc interventions vary widely and may include may be needed in clients with renal impairment. In addition, administering the drugs (DOT); teaching about the importance dosage of amikacin, capreomycin, cycloserine, ethambutol, of taking the drugs and the possible consequences of not tak- ﬂuoroquinolones, and streptomycin should be reduced in ing them (ie, more severe disease, longer treatment regimens clients with impaired renal function. Cycloserine is contra- with more toxic drugs, spreading the disease to others); moni- indicated in severe renal impairment. Family members may also need teaching related to preventing spread of the disease Most antitubercular drugs are metabolized in the liver and and assisting the client to obtain adequate treatment. In relation several (eg, INH, rifampin, and pyrazinamide) are hepato- to community needs, the nurse needs to be active in identify- toxic. Moreover, they are often used concomitantly, which ing cases, investigating contacts of newly diagnosed cases, and increases risks of hepatotoxicity. To detect hepatotoxicity as promoting efforts to manage tuberculosis effectively. CHAPTER 38 DRUGS FOR TUBERCULOSIS AND MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) DISEASE 573 NURSING Antitubercular Drugs ACTIONS NURSING ACTIONS RATIONALE/EXPLANATION 1. Give isoniazid (INH), ethambutol, and rifampin in a single A single dose with the resulting higher blood levels is more effec- dose once daily, twice a week, or 3 times a week. Also, less frequent administration is more convenient for clients and more likely to be completed. Give INH and rifampin on an empty stomach, 1 h before or Food delays absorption. Give parenteral INH by deep IM injection into a large mus- To decrease local pain and tissue irritation. Give IV rifampin by infusion, over 1 to 3 h, depending on For a 600-mg dose, reconstitute with 10 mL sterile water for in- dose and volume of IV solution. Give rifapentine on an empty stomach when possible; may Usually given twice weekly for 2 mo, with 72 h between doses, give with food if GI upset occurs. See drug literature for These drugs are used only to treat TB infection caused by organ- speciﬁc instructions. Observe for therapeutic effects Therapeutic effects are usually apparent within the ﬁrst 2 or 3 wk of drug therapy for active disease. With active disease, observe for clinical improvement (eg, decreased cough, sputum, fever, night sweats, and fatigue; increased appetite, weight, and feeling of well-being; negative sputum smear and culture; improvement in chest radiographs). Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea These symptoms are likely to occur with any of the oral antituber- cular drugs.