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By E. Arokkh. Centenary College of New Jersey.

Kampo formulae for cardiovascular diseases Ourengedokuto (Huang-Lian-Jie-Tang) Ourengedokuto is an extract of four component herbs: Coptidis rhizoma discount glycomet 500mg without prescription diabetes one and two, Phellodendri cortex glycomet 500mg visa diabetes type 2 pills, Scutellariae radix and Gardeniae fructus. It also has efficacy in cases of facial flushing, sleeplessness, agitation, skin itching and gastritis. Some clinical and basic research demonstrated that Ourengedokuto also improves decreased cerebral blood flow,29 ischaemia-induced neuronal death30 and damaged cognitive function. Chotosan (Diao-Teng-San) Chotosan comprises ten components, of which nine are herbs: Pinelliae tuber, Poria, Ginseng radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, Uncariae ramulus et uncus, Ophiopogonis tuber, Aurantii nobilis pericarpium, Chrysanthem flos, Saphoshnikoviae divaricata and the mineral gypsum fibrosum (considered to be a herb in kampo medicine). Chotosan is administered to older patients with physical weakness and such subjective symptoms as headache, heavy feeling of the head, vertigo, hot flush, tinnitus, insomnia and painful tension of the shoulder. Terasawa and co-workers demonstrated a double-blind, Japanese kampo medicine | 251 placebo-controlled clinical study of Chotosan in the treatment of vascular dementia. The change in the revised version of Hasegawa’s dementia scale from the start point in the Chotosan group tended to be higher than that in the placebo group with no statistical significance. Kampo formulae for renal diseases Saireito (Chai-Ling-Tang) Saireito consists of 12 component herbs: Bupleuri radix, Pinelliae tuber, Alismatis rhizoma, Scutellariae radix, Zizyphi fructus, Ginseng radix, Poly- porus, Poria, Atractylodis rhizoma, Cinnamomi cortex, Glycyrrhizae radix and Zingiberis rhizoma. Saireito is a combined formulation of Shosaikoto and Goreisan that has been reported to be useful in improving nephritic syndrome. Saireito has also been used for the treatments of hydrodipsia (water thirst) and oliguria, renal diseases such as glomerular nephritis and nephrosis, hepatitis and oedema. Kampo formulae for gynaecological disease Tokishakuyakusan (Dang-Gui-Shao-Yao-San) Tokishakuyakusan consists of six component herbs: Angelicae radix, Paeo- niae radix, Cnidii rhizoma, Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Alismatis rhizoma and Poria. Tokishakuyakusan has been used traditionally for gynaecological diseases such as ovarian dysfunction, endometriosis and menopausal syndrome in women. Tokishakuyakusan applies for the treatment of menoxenia, menstrual colic, sterility, abortion, vertigo, headache, oedema, anaemia, vasomotor imbalance, coldness of limbs and chilblains of the feet, nephritis and hypotonia. The symptoms are an impairment of intelligence and performance, 252 | Traditional medicine impairment of memory and language disintegration. It was suggested that steroidal sex hormones seem to be one of the essential substances for main- tenance of the limbic system and forebrain functions, which regulate memory, emotion, orientation of time and space, motivation and cognitive functions in menopausal women. Therefore Tokishakuyakusan may have therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of age-related deterioration and diseases such as dementia of Alzheimer’s type. Keishibukuryogan (Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wang) Keishibukuryogan consists of five component herbs: Cinnamomi cortex, Poria, Moutan cortex, Persicae semen and Paeoniae radix. Keishibukuryogan has been used for the treatment of coldness, hot flush, headache, stiff shoulder, vertigo, congestion in the small veins, telangiec- tasia, rough skin, discoloration of the tongue and gums, oppressive pain, resistance and fullness of the lower abdomen. Shimotsuto (Si-Wu-Tang) Shimotsuto is an extract of four component herbs: Angelicae radix, Cnidii rhizoma, Paeonide radix and Rehmannia radix. Shimotsuto has been used traditionally for the treatments of fatigue after childbirth or abortion, abnormality of menstruation, climacteric disorder, coldness, chilblains and anaemia. Kampo formulae for respiratory diseases Bakumondoto (Mai-Men-Dong-Tang) Bakumondoto consists of six component herbs: Ophiopogonis tuber, Pinel- liae tuber, Zizphi fructus, Glycyrrhizae radix, Ginseng radix and Oryzae fructus. Bakumondoto has been used for the treatment of bronchitis and pharyngitis accompanying severe dry cough. Kakkonto (Ge-Gen Tang) Kakkonto consists of seven component herbs: Radix puerariae, Zizyphi fructus, Glycyrrhizae radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, Ephedra herba, Paeoniae radix and Cinnamomi cortex.

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Sleep has a vital restorative function buy glycomet 500 mg free shipping diabetes diet and exercise pdf, and a prolonged lack of sleep results in increased anxiety buy glycomet 500 mg otc diabetes vision, diminished performance, and if severe and extended, even death. Sleep deprivation suppresses immune responses that fight off infection, and can lead to obesity, hypertension, and memory impairment. Freud believed that the primary function of dreams was wish fulfillment, and he differentiated between the manifest and latent content of dreams. Other theories of dreaming propose that we dream primarily to help with consolidation—the moving of information into long-term memory. The activation-synthesis theory of dreaming proposes that dreams are simply our brain‘s interpretation of the random firing of neurons in the brain stem. Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that change our states of consciousness, and particularly our perceptions and moods. The use (especially in combination) of psychoactive drugs has the potential to create very negative side effects, including tolerance, dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and addiction. Stimulants, including caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, and amphetamine, are psychoactive drugs that operate by blocking the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the synapses of Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Some amphetamines, such as Ecstasy, have very low safety ratios and thus are highly dangerous. They are widely used as prescription medicines to relieve pain, to lower heart rate and respiration, and as anticonvulsants. Toxic inhalants are some of the most dangerous recreational drugs, with a safety index below 10, and their continued use may lead to permanent brain damage. Opioids, including opium, morphine, heroin, and codeine, are chemicals that increase activity in opioid receptor neurons in the brain and in the digestive system, producing euphoria, analgesia, slower breathing, and constipation. Even when we know the potential costs of using drugs, we may engage in using them anyway because the rewards from using the drugs are occurring right now, whereas the potential costs are abstract and only in the future. It is normal to refer to the abuse of other behaviors, such as gambling, sex, overeating, and even overworking as “addictions‖ to describe the overuse of pleasant stimuli. Hypnosis is a trance-like state of consciousness, usually induced by a procedure known as hypnotic induction, which consists of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus. Hypnosis also is frequently used to attempt to change unwanted behaviors, such as to reduce smoking, eating, and alcohol abuse. Sensory deprivation is the intentional reduction of stimuli affecting one or more of the five senses, with the possibility of resulting changes in consciousness. Although sensory deprivation is used for relaxation or meditation purposes and to produce enjoyable changes in consciousness, when deprivation is prolonged, it is unpleasant and can be used as a means of torture. The sperm bank was part of a project that attempted to combat the ―genetic decay‖ Graham saw all around him. He believed human reproduction was experiencing a genetic decline, making for a population of ―retrograde humans,‖ and he was convinced that the way to [1] save the human race was to breed the best genes of his generation (Plotz, 2001). Graham began his project by collecting sperm samples from the most intelligent and highly achieving people he could find, including scientists, entrepreneurs, athletes, and even Nobel Prize winners. Then he advertised for potential mothers, who were required to be married to infertile men, educated, and financially well-off. Graham mailed out catalogs to the potential mothers, describing the donors using code names such as ―Mr. Grey-White,‖ who was ―ruggedly handsome, outgoing, and positive, a university professor, expert marksman who enjoys the classics,‖ and ―Mr. Fuchsia,‖ who was an ―Olympic gold medalist, tall, dark, handsome, bright, a successful businessman and [2] author‖ (Plotz, 2001). When the mother had made her choice, the sperm sample was delivered by courier and insemination was carried out at home. Before it closed following Graham‘s death in 1999, the repository claimed responsibility for the birth of 228 children.

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The transactional model of stress The role of appraisal In the 1970s discount glycomet 500mg with mastercard type 2 diabetes symptoms yahoo, Lazarus’s work on stress introduced psychology to understanding the stress response (Lazarus and Cohen 1973 500 mg glycomet with visa diabetes medications over counter, 1977; Lazarus 1975; Lazarus and Folkman 1987). Lazarus argued that stress involved a transaction between the individual and their external world, and that a stress response was elicited if the individual appraised a potentially stressful event as actually being stressful. Lazarus’s model of appraisal therefore described individuals as psychological beings who appraised the outside world, not simply passively responding to it. According to Lazarus, the individual initially appraises the event itself – defined as primary appraisal. There are four possible ways that the event can be appraised: (1) irrelevant; (2) benign and positive; (3) harmful and a threat; (4) harmful and a challenge. Lazarus then described secondary appraisal, which involves the individual evaluating the pros and cons of their different coping strategies. Therefore, primary appraisal involves an appraisal of the outside world and secondary appraisal involves an appraisal of the individual themselves. The form of the primary and secondary appraisals determines whether the individual shows a stress response or not. According to Lazarus’s model this stress response can take different forms: (1) direct action; (2) seeking information; (3) doing nothing; or (4) developing a means of coping with the stress in terms of relaxation or defence mechanisms. Several studies have examined the effect of appraisal on stress and have evaluated the role of the psychological state of the individual on their stress response. In condition one, the trauma condition, the soundtrack emphasized the pain and the mutilation. In condition two, the denial condition, the soundtrack showed the parti- cipants as being willing and happy. In condition three, the intellectualization condition, the soundtrack gave an anthropological interpretation of the ceremony. The study there- fore manipulated the subjects’ appraisal of the situation and evaluated the effect of the type of appraisal on their stress response. The results showed that subjects reported that the trauma condition was most stressful. This suggests that it is not the events them- selves that elicit stress, but the individuals’ interpretation or appraisal of those events. Similarly, Mason (1975) argued that the stress response needed a degree of awareness of the stressful situation and reported that dying patients who were unconscious showed less signs of physiological stress than those who were conscious. He suggested that the conscious patients were able to appraise their situation whereas the unconscious ones were not. However, in contrast to these studies some research indicate that appraisal may not always be necessary. In line with this possibility some researchers have identified ‘repressors’ as a group of individuals who use selective inattention and forgetting to avoid stressful information (Roth and Cohen 1986). Such people show incongruence between their physiological state and their level of reported anxiety. For example, when confronted with a stressor they say ‘I am fine’ but their body is showing arousal. This suggests that although appraisal may be central to the stress response there may be some people in some situations who deny or repress their emotional response to a stressor. Lazarus has argued that an event needs to be appraised as stressful before it can elicit a stress response. It could be concluded from this that the nature of the event itself is irrelevant, it is all down to the individual’s own perception. However, research shows that some types of events are more likely to result in a stress response than others. Salient events: People often function in many different domains such as work, family and friends.


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