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The World Health Organization (1947) deﬁned good health as ‘a state of complete physical discount 5 mg haldol with visa medicine news, mental and social well being’ haldol 5mg cheap symptoms bipolar. This deﬁnition presents a broad multidimensional view of health that departs from the traditional medical emphasis on physical health only. Over recent years this multidimensional model has emerged throughout the results of several qualitative studies that have asked lay people the question ‘what does it mean to be healthy? In particular, he focused on the saying ‘feed a cold and starve a fever’, and argued that lay constructs of health could be conceptualized according to the dimensions ‘hot/cold’ and ‘wet/dry’. In a similar vein, medical sociologists have also explored lay conceptions of health. For example, Herzlich (1973) interviewed 80 French subjects and categorized their models of health into three dimensions: ‘health in a vacuum’, implying the absence of illness; ‘the reserve of health’, relating to physical strength and resistance to illness; and ‘equilibrium’ indicating a full realization of the indi- vidual’s reserve of health. Likewise, Blaxter (1990) asked 9000 individuals to describe someone whom they thought was healthy and to consider, ‘What makes you call them healthy? However, for many health was seen in terms of a reserve, a healthy life ﬁlled with health behaviours, physical ﬁtness, having energy and vitality, social relationships with others, being able to function eﬀectively and an expression of psychosocial well- being. Blaxter also examined how a concept of health varied over the life course and investigated any sex diﬀerences. Furthermore, Calnan (1987) explored the health beliefs of women in England and argued that their models of health could be con- ceptualized in two sets of deﬁnitions: positive deﬁnitions including energetic, plenty of exercise, feeling ﬁt, eating the right things, being the correct weight, having a positive outlook and having a good life/marriage; and negative deﬁnitions including don’t get coughs and colds, only in bed once, rarely go to the doctor and have check-ups – nothing wrong. Lau (1995) argued that most people show a positive deﬁnition of health (not just the absence of illness), which also includes more than just physical and psychological factors. He suggested that healthiness is most people’s normal state and represents the backdrop to their beliefs about being ill. In his study of the beliefs of young healthy adults, Lau (1995) also asked ‘what does it mean to be sick? These dimensions of ‘what it means to be ill’ have been described within the context of illness cognitions (also called illness beliefs or illness representations). They proposed that these cognitions provide patients with a framework or a schema for coping with and understanding their illness, and telling them what to look out for if they are becoming ill. In addition, patients may hold representations of illness that reﬂect a variety of diﬀerent causal models (e. Evidence for these dimensions of illness cognitions The extent to which beliefs about illness are constituted by these diﬀerent dimensions has been studied using two main methodologies – qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitative research Leventhal and his colleagues carried out interviews with individuals who were chronically ill, had been recently diagnosed as having cancer, and with healthy adults. The resulting descriptions of illness suggest underlying beliefs that are made up of the above dimensions. Leventhal and his colleagues argued that interviews are the best way to access illness cognitions as this methodology avoids the possibility of priming the subjects. For example, asking a subject ‘to what extent do you think about your illness in terms of its possible consequences’ will obviously encourage them to regard con- sequences as an important dimension. However, according to Leventhal, interviews encourage subjects to express their own beliefs, not those expected by the interviewer. Quantitative research Other studies have used more artiﬁcial and controlled methodologies, and these too have provided support for the dimensions of illness cognitions. They asked 20 subjects to sort 65 statements into piles that ‘made sense to them’. They reported that the subjects’ piles of categories reﬂected the dimensions of identity (diagnosis/symptoms), consequences (the possible eﬀects), time line (how long it will last), cause (what caused the illness) and cure/control (how and whether it can be treated).
This abdominal pain buy discount haldol 5 mg online xanax medications for anxiety, hypotension generic haldol 5mg fast delivery medicine names, psychiatric reactions, as well as accounts for its rapid effect when administered intravenously seizures and withdrawal syndromes have been reported. Its main use is by mouth to replace causes similar respiratory depression, vomiting and gastro- morphine or diamorphine when these drugs are being with- intestinal smooth muscle contraction to morphine, but does drawn in the treatment of drug dependence. It once daily under supervision is preferable to leaving addicts to produces little euphoria, but does cause dependence. Pethidine is sometimes used in obstetrics abuse are related to parenteral administration, with its attend- because it does not reduce the activity of the pregnant uterus, ant risks of infection (e. The object is to reduce craving by (common to all opioids) is of particular concern in obstetrics, occupying opioid receptors, simultaneously reducing the as gastric aspiration is a leading cause of maternal morbidity. The slower onset follow- ing oral administration reduces the reward and reinforcement Pharmacokinetics of dependence. The relatively long half-life reduces the inten- Hepatic metabolism is the main route of elimination. Its effect has a rapid onset and if a satisfactory Codeine is the methyl ether of morphine, but has only about response has not been obtained within three minutes, the dose 10% of its analgesic potency. As a result, it has been used for many Naloxone is used in the management of the apnoeic infant years as an analgesic for moderate pain, as a cough suppres- after birth when the mother has received opioid analgesia sant and for symptomatic relief of diarrhoea. Naltrexone is an orally active opioid antagonist that is used in Pharmacokinetics specialized clinics as adjunctive treatment to reduce the risk of relapse in former opioid addicts who have been detoxified. Such Free morphine also appears in plasma following codeine patients who are receiving naltrexone in addition to supportive administration, and codeine acts as a prodrug, producing a therapy, are less likely to resume illicit opiate use (detected by low but sustained concentration of morphine. However, the drop-out rate is high due to non-com- codeine to morphine, and consequently experience less, if any, pliance. Its use is not recom- has not been extensively studied in non-addicts, and most of the mended. It antagonizes full agonists and can precipitate pain and cause The relief of pain in terminal disease, usually cancer, requires withdrawal symptoms in patients who are already receiving skilful use of analgesic drugs. For mild Like other opiates, buprenorphine is subject to considerable pain, paracetamol, aspirin or codeine (a weak opioid) or a pre-systemic and hepatic first-pass metabolism (via glu- combined preparation (e. It is important to use a large enough dose, if necessary given intravenously, to relieve the pain completely. Minor alterations in the chemical structure of opioids result in • It is much easier to prevent pain before it has built up than drugs that are competitive antagonists. This a smoother control of pain, without peaks and troughs of causes fear, which makes the pain worse. This vicious analgesia, which can still be supplemented with shorter circle can be avoided by time spent on pre-operative duration morphine formulations for breakthrough pain. Regular use of mild analgesics can be highly laxatives, such as senna, and/or glycerine suppositories should effective. Spinal administration ketorolac, which can be given parenterally) can have of opioids is not routinely available, but is sometimes useful for comparable efficacy to opioids when used in this way. Opioids are effective in visceral pain Key points and are especially valuable after abdominal surgery. Breakthrough pain can be treated by additional parenteral morphine is often needed initially, followed oral or parenteral doses of morphine. They are only required by a minority of – anti-emetics: prochloperazine, metoclopramide; patients, but should be available without delay when – laxative: senna.
Peteet buy cheap haldol 1.5 mg illness and treatment, University of Cincinnati Brad Pinter generic 5 mg haldol otc medicine mart, Pennsylvania State University, Altoona Steven V. Isaak, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, for his work on the accompanying Test Item File and PowerPoint slides; and to Chrissy Chimi and Stacy Claxton of Scribe, Inc. Completion of the book and supplements required the attention of many people, including Michael Boezi, who signed the book and supported my efforts from beginning to end; Pam Hersperger, who managed the book through development; and Gina Huck Siegert, who worked closely with me on all aspects of the project. I was able to give a lecture on the sympathetic nervous system, a lecture on Piaget, and a lecture on social cognition, but how could I link these topics together for the student? I felt a bit like I was presenting a laundry list of research findings rather than an integrated set of principles and knowledge. How could they be expected to remember and understand all the many phenomena of psychology? And why, given the abundance of information that was freely available to them on the web, should they care about my approach? My pedagogy needed something to structure, integrate, and motivate their learning. Eventually, I found some techniques to help my students understand and appreciate what I found to be important. First, I realized that psychology actually did matter to my students, but that I needed to make it clear to them why it did. One of the most fundamental integrating principles of the discipline of psychology is its focus on behavior, and yet that is often not made clear to students. Affect, cognition, and motivation are critical and essential, and yet are frequently best understood and made relevant through their links with behavior. Once I figured this out, I began tying all the material to this concept: The sympathetic nervous system matters because it has specific and predictable influences on our behavior. Piaget‘s findings matter because they help us understand the child’s behavior (not just his or her thinking). And social cognition matters because our social thinking helps us better relate to the other people in our everyday social lives. This integrating theme allows me to organize my lectures, my writing assignments, and my testing. Second was the issue of empiricism: I emphasized that what seems true might not be true, and we need to try to determine whether it is. The idea of empirical research testing falsifiable hypotheses and explaining much (but never all) behavior—the idea of psychology as a science— was critical, and it helped me differentiate psychology from other disciplines. The length of existing textbooks was creating a real and unnecessary impediment to student learning. I was condensing and abridging my coverage, but often without a clear rationale for choosing to cover one topic and omit another. My focus on behavior, coupled with a consistent focus on empiricism, helped in this regard—focusing on these themes helped me identify the underlying principles of psychology and separate more essential topics from less essential ones. Five or ten years from now, I do not expect my students to remember the details of most of what I teach them. However, I do hope that they will remember that psychology matters because it helps us understand behavior and that our knowledge of psychology is based on empirical study. I begin my focus on behavior by opening each chapter with a chapter opener showcasing an interesting real-world example of people who are dealing with behavioral questions and who can use psychology to help them answer those questions. The opener is designed to draw the student into the chapter and create an interest in learning about the topic. Each chapter contains one or two features designed to link the principles from the chapter to real-world applications in business, environment, health, law, learning, and other relevant domains.
Smooth muscle gets its name from the fact that trusted haldol 10mg treatment 4 toilet infection, unlike other muscle tissue types order haldol 1.5mg otc symptoms 7 days past ovulation, it is not striated. Cardiac muscle tissue: Also known as myocardium, cardiac muscle tissue is made of branching fibers, each with a central nucleus and alternating light and dark striations. As with smooth muscle, cardiac muscle tissue contractions occur through the autonomic nervous system (involuntary control). Skeletal, or striated, muscle tissue: Biceps, triceps, pecs — these are the mus- cles that bodybuilders focus on. As the name implies, skeletal muscles attach to the skeleton and are used throughout the central nervous system for movement. Muscle fibers are cylindrical with several nuclei in each cell (which makes them multinucleated) and cross-striations throughout. Part I: Building Blocks of the Body 54 Figure 4-3: Muscle tissues: Smooth, cardiac, and skeletal. Smooth muscle cell Intercalated disc Muscle fiber Nuclei Nucleus Nuclei Illustration by Imagineering Media Services Inc. Deltoid Getting the Signal Across: Nerve Tissue There’s only one type of nerve tissue and only one primary type of cell in it: the neuron. Nerve tissue is unique in that it can both generate and conduct electrical sig- nals in the body. That process starts when sense receptors receive a stimulus that causes electrical impulses to be sent through finger-like cytoplasmic projections called Chapter 4: The Study of Tissues: Histology 55 dendrites. From there, the impulse moves through the body of the cell and into another type of cytoplasmic projection (or nerve process) called an axon that hands the signal off to the next cell down the line. The cytoplasmic projection of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body is called a. Smooth muscle Part I: Building Blocks of the Body 56 Answers to Questions on Histology The following are answers to the practice questions presented in this chapter. Tubules of the kidney i A tissue that’s one layer thick but appears to be multilayered and is composed of cells taller than they are wide is c. To arrive at the correct answer, consider this question one piece at a time: pseudo is “false,” stratified means “layered” (so you have “false-layered”), and columns are taller than they are wide. Knowing that the Greek word thrombos means “clot” can help you spot the correct answer in this question. Intercalated discs, as you should or will know from studying the circulatory system, are involved in conducting signals for the heart to pump. Chapter 4: The Study of Tissues: Histology 57 C Skeletal muscle tissue has prominent lines across the fiber called d. The other answer choices contain striated tissue, which technically means that they aren’t smooth. F The cytoplasmic projection of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body is called c. Each neuron cell usually has only one axon, although it may branch off several times. First we focus on how bones are formed before broadening the view to the axial skeleton (the parts that line up from head to toe) and the appendicular skeleton (the parts that reach out from the central axis). You review how muscles attach to that framework and watch the body take shape before wrapping this newly layered package in the body’s largest single organ: the skin. Chapter 5 A Scaffold to Build On: The Skeleton In This Chapter Getting to know your bones Keeping the axial skeleton in line Checking out the appendicular skeleton Playing with joints uman osteology, from the Greek word for “bone” (osteon) and the suffix –logy, which Hmeans “to study,” focuses on the 206 bones in the adult body endoskeleton.