By Z. Brontobb. Texas Chiropractic College.
Methyldopa (Aldomet) is one of the most commonly used antihypertensives in preg- nant women discount fosamax 35mg free shipping women's health clinic darwin. Beta-adrenergic blockers such as atenolol purchase fosamax 35mg with mastercard menopause weight, propranolol, or labetolol, as well as the cal- cium channel blockers and the centrally acting agent, clonidine, can also be used during pregnancy to treat hypertensions. However, no scientific evidence indicates that they offer any advantage over methyldopa during pregnancy. A variety of thiazide diuretics may also be utilized as an adjunct in the treatment of hypertension. However, they should not be initiated after 20 weeks gestation because they may interfere with the ‘normal’ pregnancy expansion of blood volume and thus pla- cental perfusion. The treatment goal of medical therapy is to achieve a diastolic blood pressure less than 110 mmHg, and in the range of 90–100 mmHg. Caution must be exercised at the lower range to ensure adequate placental perfusion. Diuretics are generally contraindicated in women with preeclampsia because they may significantly interfere with utero-placental blood flow by further decreasing intravascu- lar volume. Prophylaxis of subacute bacterial endocarditis Pregnant women with significant cardiac lesions should receive antibiotic prophylaxis for invasive procedures, including vaginal and Caesarean delivery, as prophylaxis for endocarditis (see Box 3. Fetal cardiac arrhythmias A variety of fetal arrhythmias may be detected during pregnancy (Box 3. Factors that influence in utero ther- apy include the type and etiology of the arrhythmia, the potential for fetal compromise (i. Although virtually all antiarrhythmic drugs cross the placenta, it is often difficult to achieve adequate blood concentrations in both the mother and fetus with standard therapeutic doses. Supraventricular tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia is probably the most common fetal arrhythmia associated with fetal congestive heart failure, especially if the condition is long-standing (Chitkara et al. The drug of choice for the initial treatment of supraventricular tachycardia is maternal digitalis therapy (Pinsky et al. This drug crosses the placenta readily and is safe for the fetus, although it is sometimes difficult to achieve therapeutic levels in the fetus. Verapamil, which has been utilized for this purpose, should be used with extreme caution and prob- ably only after other therapeutic modalities have failed because of adverse events. Other agents that may used include quinidine, disopyramide, flecainide, and amiodarone, depending on the suspected etiology of the tachycardia (Kleinman and Copel, 1991). Atrial flutter Atrial flutter and fibrillation are uncommon during the fetal period and are often diffi- cult to diagnose. Control of the ventricular rate via atrioventricular nodal blocks with digoxin or verapamil may be inadequate and may actually worsen fetal hemodynamic status (Kleinman and Copel, 1991). Unless the atrial flutter itself is controlled, ‘there will continue to be actual con- tractions against a closed or partially closed atrioventricular valve. A type I agent, such as procainamide or quinidine, should be included in the treatment regimen. Atrial fibrillation is even more rare than flutter and is treated similarly (Kleinman and Copel, 1991). Beta-adrenergic blocking agents in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Use of thrombolytics for the treatment of thromboembolic disease during pregnancy. Disorders of endocrinologic systems may be associated with adverse maternal, embryonic, or fetal effects. These effects include increases in infertility, spontaneous abortion, fetal malformations, maternal and fetal metabolic derangements, and maternal and fetal death. Certain endocrine disorders, such as gestational diabetes mellitus, arise spontaneously during pregnancy, whereas preexisting endocrine disorders may be exacerbated, may improve, or may remain stable during gestation.
But few doses will be given until abatement of the active symptoms will be observed discount fosamax 35 mg without prescription womens health zucchini recipe. The same course may be advised in prostatitis or acute orchitis with similar results 35mg fosamax overnight delivery women's health clinic kadena. Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 10 Aconite is a remedy of prime importance in the treatment of amenorrhea when the suppression results from acute cold. When the secretion of the skin and mucous membrane is restored by aconite, a full dose of quinine will sometimes accomplish the desired result, when it would accomplish nothing without this agent. Aconite is so assuredly a specific in febrile conditions that its influence in chronic diseases is almost entirely overlooked. It is in certain chronic and non-febrile conditions a very reliable remedy because of its certain action upon the nervous system. John King advised its use in treatment of non-febrile spinal irritation in young women, and the writer has followed his suggestions in this condition for years with superior results in many cases. Its direct influence upon the cerebro-spinal system is recognized by homeopathists, Deschere says: “Aconite is useful in mental diseases and hysteria when there is particular aversion to excitement; the patients show an intolerance of music; they can bear no sounds. The symptoms indicating it in these cases are numerous and important, and necessarily so, since aconite restrains the blood flow and also exerts a special action on the heart and its nerves. There are congestions of both heart and lungs, palpitation with anxiety, cardiac oppression and even syncope. The palpitation is worse when walking, lancinating stitches occur and prevent the patient from assuming an erect posture or taking a deep inspiration. Attacks of intense pain at times extend down the left arm from the heart and are associated with numbness and tingling in the fingers. The agent is advised by many in angina pectoris when there are strong contractions or pure hypertrophy, but not in enfeebled heart or where there is much valvular insufficiency. The aconitine, in granules, is the best form for its internal administration in neuralgia. Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 11 Webster has used aconite externally for pruritus, with excellent results. Occasionally the condition returns but in most cases the cure has remained permanent. The remedy is diluted and applied according to the discretion and knowledge of the physician. Aconite is of common use in local pain, to relieve congestion, irritation and distress. Perhaps the most immediate influence obtainable in acute pain is to pour ten drops each of chloroform and aconite into the palm of the hand and hold it over the seat of the pain for two or three minutes. It may be used in this manner in acute stomach or bowel pains until the cause of the pain is removed by other measures, or in acute pleurisy, and especially in angina pectoris. The pain ends with the application, and measures can be adopted to prevent its recurrence. Any local pain or neuralgia will yield, for a time at least, and in some cases it will not return. Sciatica treated two or three times per week with this simple formula will sometimes cease to return. We have observed that aconite intensifies, modifies and otherwise improves the action of several other agents with which it may be combined or alternated. The characteristic effects of Cimicifuga racemosa will occur in much less time with this remedy than when given alone.
Although molds are alive cheap fosamax 70 mg with mastercard women's health clinic gadsden al, and can be killed by zapping cheap 35mg fosamax otc menstrual disorders symptoms, mycotoxins are not, and must be detoxified by your liver. But because mycotoxins are so extremely poisonous, a tiny amount can incapacitate a part of the liver for days! For that reason I am always cautioning people to eat only perfect citrus fruit, and never drink commercial fruit juice. Of the thousands of oranges that go into the batch of orange juice you drink, one is sure to be moldy, and that is all it takes to give your liver a setback. It also helps get rid of aflatoxin before it is consumed, right in the food container. So keep a plastic shaker of vitamin C powder handy and use it like salt on all your food. Physical Toxins Breathing in dust is quite bad for you so your body rejects it by sneezing, coughing, spitting up and out. But because it is sharp it gets caught in your tissue, then works its way deeper and deeper. We are unaware that it fills our homes when fiberglass insulation is left imperfectly sealed off. Any hole made through the ceiling or wall, even if covered with cloth, lets swarms of broken glass bits into the house air. Of course, fiberglass should never be used in home construction, draperies, or around water heaters. The best advice is to have it all removed while you are away and then vacuum and dust. Chronic exposure from a single small hole in the ceiling does a lot of harm, leading to cyst formation. And that cyst is a perfect place for parasites and bacteria to settle and multiply. Asbestos is another tiny bit, sharp as glass, that moves through your body like a swordfish, impaling your cells until it, too, gets routed into a cyst. We have been led to believe that we no longer have asbestos in our homes because we have outlawed the fireproofing mate- rials it was used in. While that may be true, the source I find most often is all too prevalent: the clothes dryer belt. As it gets hot the belt releases a blast of asbestos particles that are forced through the seams of your dryer, and also openings in your exhaust hose, by the high pressure formed inside. By the time your air conditioner or refrigerator needs recharging, you have been exposed for a long time. Our diligent scientists have studied the mechanism of arsenic poisoning in great detail. Then why are we allowed to put it on our lawns to be carried into our carpets via shoes? As a result, foam fur- niture, pillows and mattresses give off formaldehyde for about two years after manufacturing. If you sleep with your nose buried in a new foam pillow all night, you are risking major lung problems. And what if you found that although many people had them, those who were sick with a cold always had at least one of them. Would you ask whether a sudden buildup of mycotoxins is what really lets colds develop? What if you always found every mysteriously ill person had some unsuspected parasite or pollutant? They forced me to alter my entire outlook on what really causes some of our “incurable”, mysterious diseases.
Acetaminophen’s metabolic pathways (sulfation and glucuronidation) become saturated discount fosamax 35 mg line womens health 5 minute abs, causing an increased metabolic load to cytochrome P-450 oxidases purchase fosamax 35mg women's health best body meal plan reviews. The P-450 system oxidizes the drug and produces a highly reactive intracellular metabolite that complexes with hepatic glutathione. The P-450-produced metabolite binds to hepatocellular macromolecules when glutathione is depleted and hepatotoxicity ensues (Andrews et al. Fetal P-450 has 10 per- cent or less of adult activity and produces negligible amounts of the toxic metabolite. Some authorities speculate that the increased risk of maternal hepatotoxicity compared to fetal hepatotoxicity may be related to the largely inactive fetal enzyme complement, i. It was also speculated that fetuses of more advanced gestational age may be at greater risk 260 Drug overdoses during pregnancy 300 Toxic 200 100 Possible 45 45 30 Unlikely 30 0 4 8 12 16 Hours after intake Figure 14. However, in the largest series studied, this relationship was not readily apparent (Table 14. The critical determinant of maternal–fetal outcome following acetaminophen overdose is the expediency in administering the antidote. The most critical aspect of treating acetaminophen overdoses is administering the antidote as early as possible. Those gravidas given N-acetylcysteine within 10 h of ingesting large doses of acetaminophen have the best pregnancy outcomes (Table 14. Aspirin Aspirin is the second most frequently used drug in attempted suicide or gestures among pregnant women (Rayburn et al. Clinical details have been reported of several cases of aspirin overdose during pregnancy as part of a suicide gesture (Table 14. The mean salicylate half-life has been shown to be approximately 20 h, and disappearance of salicylate from the circulation in the post-absorptive period (approximately 6 h after ingestion) is a first-order reaction (Done, 1968). Unfortunately, there is no specific anti- dote to aspirin, and nonspecific antidote treatment (i. Alkalinization of the urine by intra- venous administration of bicarbonate greatly increases the renal excretion of salicylic acid, as well as enhancing ionization of salicylate in plasma, which facilitates movement of the drug out of the central nervous system (Done, 1968). The risk of congenital anomalies does not seem to be higher among children of women who used aspirin during pregnancy. Among 41 infants born to women who had taken significant amounts of aspirin at various times during pregnancy, one infant was born with congenital anomalies (McElhatton et al. Notably, aspirin overdose during pregnancy poses a greater risk for fetal death than acetaminophen. Aspirin is the toxic agent, and not a metabolite; it is transferred across the placenta and reaches concentrations in the fetus that are higher than those in the mother (Garrettson et al. The cases of salicylate poisoning in pregnancy that have been reported support the same basic Table 14. Consider charcoal even for late-presenting patients; peak absorption may be delayed up to 12 h postingestion especially with enteric coated tablets. Consider gastric lavage followed by 50 g activated charcoal, if patient presents within 1 h. If history is reliable for an ingestion >120 mg/kg and tablets are enteric coated, consider measuring levels for minimum 12 h postingestion even if no salicylate is detected initially. Monitor and correct urine and electrolytes, arterial blood gases and pH, blood sugar, prothrombin time. Urinary alkalinisation For salicylate level 500–700 mg/L in adults or salicylate level 350–600 mg/L in children/elderly where patients have moderate clinical effects.