By M. Aidan. Western Michigan University.
Health care providers are well aware of the role that infections play in the intensive care unit purchase furosemide 100mg amex blood pressure medication. A substantial number of patients are admitted to the intensive care unit because of an infection such as pneumonia furosemide 100 mg cheap pulse pressure high, meningitis, or sepsis. A substantial number of patients admitted to intensive care units for noninfectious disorders develop infections during their stay. Thus, intensivists need expertise in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases. In this third edition of Infectious Diseases in Critical Care Medicine, Burke Cunha has organized 31 chapters into an exceedingly practical and useful overview. Providers often find it surprisingly difficult to distinguish infectious and noninfectious syndromes, especially when patients have life-threatening processes that evoke similar systemic inflammatory responses. Specific chapters focus on special intensive care unit problems, such as central venous catheter infections, nosocomial pneumonias, endocarditis, and Clostridium difficile infection. Particularly useful are chapters on special populations that many clinicians rarely encounter: tropical diseases, cirrhosis, burns, transplants, or tubercu- losis. Chapters on therapy also provide practical advice focused on critically ill patients, in whom choice of agent, toxicities, drug interactions, and pharmacokinetics may be substantially different from patients who are less seriously ill. Genomics and proteomics can predict susceptibility to various diseases and drug metabolic problems. Invasive arterial and venous monitoring as well as monitoring of central nervous system and cardiac activity is commonplace. Despite these advances in technology, knowledge of differential diagnosis, natural history, and therapeutic options is still essential. To understand these processes, Burke Cunha has assembled an impressive team of experienced clinicians to provide insight into the infectious challenges of critical care medicine. This edition continues to provide relevant, current information that will enhance clinical practice with this growing segment of hospitalized patients. Henry Masur Department of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Center National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland, U. Preface to the First Edition Infectious diseases are very important in critical care. In the critical care unit, infectious diseases are seen in the differential diagnoses of the majority of patients, and maybe patients acquire infections in the critical care unit. However, infectious disease is accorded a relatively minor place in most critical care textbooks and does not receive the emphasis it deserves given its presence in the critical care unit. The infectious diseases encountered in the critical care setting are some of the most severe and often difficult to diagnose. This book was developed for critical care practitioners, the majority of whom are not trained in infectious diseases. It is written by clinicians in infectious diseases in critical care and is meant as a handbook to provide valuable information not included in critical care textbooks. It comprises four main sections: The first section deals with general concepts of infectious diseases in the critical care unit; the second deals with infectious diseases on the basis of clinical syndromes; the third deals with specific infectious disease problems; and the fourth, with therapeutic considerations in critical care patients. One of the unique features of this book is its emphasis on differential diagnosis rather than therapy. If the patient’s problem can be clearly delineated diagnostically, treatment is a relatively straight- forward matter.
In Mediterranean peoples order 100 mg furosemide with mastercard blood pressure and caffeine, the most common mutation is a C563T substitution result- ing in an amino acid change (Ser188Phe) order furosemide 40 mg visa blood pressure healthy. Cases of drug-induced hemolytic anemia have also been described in patients treated with cyclosporine, tacrolimus, penicillin, and cefotetan. The risk and sever- ity of hemolysis are thought to be associated with dose, duration of therapy, and other oxidant stresses, such as infection and environmental factors. For example, some patients with these mutations experience toxicity after drug administration, and oth- ers do not. In addition, the treatment for drug-induced oxidative hemolytic anemia is merely cessation of drug administration, with blood transfusion and corticoste- roid administration warranted in severe cases. Although genetic constitution may be at the core of explaining drug toxicity and efﬁcacy, genotyping may not always directly affect therapy or predict patient outcomes. N-Acetyltransferase The acetylation polymorphism illustrates another genetic polymorphism of a drug-metabolizing enzyme studied in the early era of pharmacogenetics. The slow acetylator phenotype often experiences toxicity from drugs such as isoniazid, sulfonamides, procainamide, and Universal Free E-Book Store Role of Pharmacogenetics in Pharmaceutical Industry 109 hydralazine, whereas the fast acetylator phenotype may not respond to isoniazid and hydralazine in the management of tuberculosis and hypertension, respectively. During the development of isoniazid, isoniazid plasma concentrations were observed in a distinct bimodal population after a standard dose. Patients with the highest plasma isoniazid levels were generally slow acetylators and they suffered from peripheral nerve damage, while fast acetylators were not affected. Slow acetylators are also at risk for sulfonamide-induced toxicity and can suffer from idiopathic lupus erythematosus while taking procainamide. Studies have shown large variations of the slow acety- lator phenotype among ethnic groups: 40–70 % of Caucasians and African- Americans, 10–20 % of Japanese and Canadian Eskimo, more than 80 % of Egyptians, and certain Jewish populations are slow acetylators. In East Asia, the further north the geographic origin of the population, the lower the frequency of the slow acetylator gene. The reason for this trend is unknown, but it has been specu- lated that differences in dietary habits or the chemical or physical environment may be contributing factors. Polymorphism also enhances the effect of irinotecan, an antitumor agent approved for use in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Their use, alone or in combination, facilitates the phenotype characterization of hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Two procedures are used for in vitro investigation of the metabolic proﬁle of a drug: incubation with microsomes and incubation with metabolically compe- tent cells. The major limitation of microsomes is that inhibition parameters may not accu- rately reﬂect the situation in vivo, since the contribution of drug transport is not considered. The best picture of a potential drug-drug interaction can be obtained in metabolically competent hepatocytes. Human hepatocytes in primary culture respond well to enzyme inducers during the ﬁrst few days; this ability is lost thereafter. Hepatoma cell lines respond poorly to inducers, although the induction of a few isoenzymes has been reported. Primary cultured hepatocytes are still the unique in vitro model that allows global examination of the inductive potential of a drug. Genetically manipulated cell lines that express enzymes and respond to inducers would be more suitable for this purpose as an alternative to the use of human hepatocytes. Universal Free E-Book Store Role of Pharmacogenetics in Pharmaceutical Industry 111 Polymorphism of Drug Transporters Transporters are involved in the transport of proteins, peptides, amino acids, ions and certain drugs. Transport proteins have an important role in regulating the absorption, distribution, and excretion of many medications. Disorders associated with defects in solute transporters, such as severe diarrhea in glucose/galactose malabsorption and pri- mary bile acid malabsorption may be associated with pronounced general changes in drug absorption. Several investigations are aimed at clarifying the role of trans- porters in drug absorption, disposition, and targeting.