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A prostaglandin is given approximately 48 hours after the mifepristone to Although antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are known teratogens female cialis 20mg low price menopause quotes funny, augment uterine contractions and ensure expulsion of the they must often be taken during pregnancy because seizures conceptus female cialis 10 mg cheap women's health birth control options. Despite the usually good outcomes, the incidence of birth defects is 2 to TOCOLYTICS 3 times higher in fetuses exposed to AEDs than in those not exposed. If an AED is required, monotherapy with the low- Drugs given to inhibit labor and maintain the pregnancy are est dose that stops seizures should be used and plasma drug called tocolytics. Uterine contractions with cervical changes levels should be checked monthly. Women with epilepsy between 20 and 37 weeks of gestation are considered prema- should take a folic acid supplement (at least 400 mcg daily) ture labor. Nonpharmacologic treatment includes bed rest, all the time and 800 mcg or more during pregnancy. Drug therapy is most effective when plemental vitamin K is usually needed during the last the cervix is dilated less than 4 cm and membranes are intact. An Ritodrine, terbutaline, magnesium sulfate, and nifedipine injection of vitamin K is also given to the infant immedi- are used as tocolytics (see Drugs at a Glance: Abortifacients, ately after birth. Ritodrine and There has been controversy as to whether teratogenic terbutaline are beta-adrenergic agents that relax uterine smooth effects stemmed from epilepsy or AEDs. Moreover, the rate of taline is not FDA approved for use in premature labor, but is birth defects in infants exposed to one AED was signiﬁcantly used widely for that purpose. Hypermagnesemia may occur took AEDs for bipolar disorder rather than epilepsy also had because tocolytic serum levels (4 to 7 mEq/L) are higher than higher rates of birth defects. Close monitoring of serum 974 SECTION 11 DRUGS USED IN SPECIAL CONDITIONS Drugs at a Glance: Abortifacients, Prostaglandins, Tocolytics, and Oxytocics Generic/Trade Name Routes and Dosage Ranges Progesterone Antagonist Mifepristone (Mifeprex) PO 600 mg as a single dose or smaller amounts for 4–7 d Prostaglandins Carboprost tromethamine (Hemabate) IM 250 mcg q1. Termination usually complete within 48 h Tocolytics Ritodrine (Yutopar) IV infusion 0. The infusion should be continued for 12 h after uterine contractions cease. PO 10 mg 30 min before discontinuing the IV infusion, then 10 mg q2h for 24 h, then 10–20 mg q4–6h as long as necessary to maintain the pregnancy. Maximal oral dose, 120 mg daily Terbutaline (Brethine) Magnesium sulfate IV infusion 10 mcg/min, titrated up to a maximum dose of 80 mcg/min until contractions cease PO 2. Maintenance dose 1–2 g/h, according to serum magnesium levels and deep tendon reﬂexes. Nifedipine (Procardia) PO 10 mg every 20 min for 2–3 doses; maximum dose 40 mg in 1 h Oxytocics Oxytocin (Pitocin) During labor and delivery, IV 2 milliunits/min, gradually increased to 20 milliunits/min, if necessary, to produce three or four contractions within 10-min periods. Methylergonovine maleate (Methergine) To prevent excessive postpartum bleeding, PO 0. Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to initiate labor and promotes letdown of breast milk to the nipples in lactation. Pitocin is a synthetic DRUGS USED DURING LABOR form used to induce labor at or near full-term gestation and AND DELIVERY AT TERM to augment labor when uterine contractions are weak and in- effective. It also can be used to prevent or control uterine At the end of gestation, labor usually begins spontaneously and bleeding after delivery or to complete an incomplete abor- proceeds through delivery of the neonate. It is contraindicated for antepartum use in the presence prostaglandin preparations (eg, Prepidil or Cervidil formula- of fetal distress, cephalopelvic disproportion, preterm labor, tions of dinoprostone) are administered intravaginally to pro- placenta previa, previous uterine surgery, and severe mote cervical ripening and induce labor. Methergine is used for management of post- during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period partum hemorrhage related to uterine atony.
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In bone purchase female cialis 20mg line women's health clinic joondalup, breakdown is increased discount female cialis 10 mg line pregnancy verification form, so that calcium aid understanding of these drugs, characteristics of the hor- moves from bone into the serum. In the intestines, there is 366 CHAPTER 26 HORMONES THAT REGULATE CALCIUM AND BONE METABOLISM 367 Mechanisms that raise serum calcium levels ↓ Serum calcium ↓ Serum calcium ↑ Parathyroid hormone secretion ↑ Activation of vitamin D ↓ Renal excretion of calcium Figure 26–1 Hormonal regula- ↑ Intestinal absorption of calcium ↑ Intestinal absorption of calcium tion of serum calcium levels. When (via activation of vitamin D) serum calcium levels are low (hypo- calcemia), there is increased se- ↑ Release of calcium from bone ↑ Release of calcium from bone cretion of parathyroid hormone and increased activation of vitamin D. These mechanisms work together ↑ Serum calcium ↑ Serum calcium to raise serum calcium levels to normal. When serum calcium levels are ↓ Parathyroid hormone secretion ↑ Calcitonin secretion high (hypercalcemia), there is de- creased secretion of parathyroid hormone and increased secretion ↑ Renal excretion of calcium ↑ Renal excretion of calcium of calcitonin. These mechanisms lead to increased loss of calcium in ↓ Intestinal absorption of calcium the urine, decreased absorption of calcium from the intestine, and de- ↓ Release of calcium from bone ↓ Release of calcium from bone creased resorption of calcium from bone. These mechanisms lower ↓ Serum calcium ↓ Serum calcium serum calcium levels to normal. When the serum level vates vitamin D, which increases intestinal absorption). In of ionized calcium is increased, secretion of calcitonin is in- the kidneys, there is increased reabsorption of calcium in the creased. The function of calcitonin is to lower serum calcium renal tubules and less urinary excretion. The opposite effects in the presence of hypercalcemia, which it does by decreasing occur with phosphate (ie, PTH decreases serum phosphate movement of calcium from bone to serum and increasing uri- and increases urinary phosphate excretion). Thus, it has little effect on long-term calcium production of PTH (hypoparathyroidism) or excessive pro- metabolism. Hypoparathyroidism is most often caused by removal of or damage to the parathyroid glands during neck surgery. Hyperparathyroidism is most Vitamin D (Calciferol) often caused by a tumor or hyperplasia of a parathyroid gland. It also may result from ectopic secretion of PTH by malignant Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that includes both ergo- tumors (eg, carcinomas of the lung, pancreas, kidney, ovary, calciferol (obtained from foods) and cholecalciferol (formed prostate gland, or bladder). It functions as a hormone ment of hypoparathyroidism are the same as those of hypocal- and plays an important role in calcium and bone metabo- cemia; clinical manifestations of hyperparathyroidism are lism. The main action of vitamin D is to raise serum cal- those of hypercalcemia. It also promotes bone formation by providing adequate serum concentrations of Calcitonin minerals. It must be converted to an intermediate metabolite in Calcitonin is a hormone from the thyroid gland whose secre- the liver, then to an active metabolite (1,25-dihydroxyvita- tion is controlled by the concentration of ionized calcium in the min D or calcitriol) in the kidneys. PTH and adequate he- 368 SECTION 4 DRUGS AFFECTING THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM patic and renal function are required to produce the active used to treat hypocalcemia and to prevent and treat osteo- metabolite. These agents are described in the following sec- Deﬁciency of vitamin D causes inadequate absorption of tions; names and dosages of individual drug preparations calcium and phosphorus. This, in turn, leads to low levels of are listed in Drugs at a Glance: Calcium and Vitamin D serum calcium and stimulation of PTH secretion. Drugs used for hypercalcemia include bis- this sequence of events produces inadequate mineralization phosphonates, calcitonin, corticosteroids, 0. Those used adults, vitamin D deﬁciency causes osteomalacia, a condition for osteoporosis inhibit bone breakdown and demineraliza- characterized by decreased bone density and strength. These drugs are described in the following sections; indications for use and dosages are listed in Drugs Calcium and Phosphorus at a Glance: Drugs Used in Hypercalcemia and Selected Bone Disorders. Calcium and phosphorus are discussed together because they are closely related physiologically.