By E. Fabio. Southeastern Louisiana University. 2018.
Multiple lines of evi- chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) to 10 men with PG and dence from studies investigating the neurochemical bases 10 healthy male control subjects purchase 160 mg malegra fxt plus with mastercard erectile dysfunction doctors in atlanta. Studies in humans with cocaine dependence have 5-HT1D discount 160mg malegra fxt plus visa erectile dysfunction doctor kolkata, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT3 receptors, with par- found MCL regional brain activations after a cocaine-in- ticularly high affinity for 5-HT2C receptors (47–49). A role for pects of mood, anxiety, appetite, behavior (including sexual DA in the rewarding and reinforcing aspects of gambling activity), and neuroendocrine function (50,51). To explore this hypothesis, gators found that individuals with PG reported a euphoric Bergh et al. Decreased levels of DA and similar to those reported for other disorders such as antiso- increased levels of the DA metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphen- cial personality disorder (52), borderline personality disor- ylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were der (53), trichotrillomania (54), and alcohol abuse or depen- observed in the PG subjects (59). The authors concluded dence (55), in which impulsive or compulsive behaviors are these findings to be consistent with an increased rate of DA prominent. In addition to differences in behavioral reac- neurotransmission, although more recently the same group tions, PG subjects demonstrated altered biochemical re- did not find decreased HVA levels when correcting for CSF sponses to the m-CPP challenges. Initial studies into the chemical authors reported that after a winning streak described as a composition of CSF from men with PG found no signifi- 'fever,' six men who were regular Pachinko players were cant differences in levels of 5-HT or its metabolite 5-hy- found to have elevated levels of DA. The authors suggested droxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) as compared to levels in the DA changes may be related to the motivational processes healthy men (57–59). Given that multiple factors can com- underlying repeated Pachinko playing. Alterations in mea- plicate evaluation of CSF data (56,60,61) and the finding sures of arousal, NE, endogenous opiates, and immune sys- that men with PG have significantly longer CSF tapping tem function were also described. Although the results of times than healthy male controls (62), the authors calculated the foregoing studies and additional evidence from neu- the concentrations of monoamine metabolites per minute roimaging and molecular genetic studies suggest DA dys- of tapping to obtain an estimate of mass flow through the function in PG (see later), more studies are needed to clarify lumbar puncture needle. When taking tapping time into the involvement of DA pathology in PG. These findings, particularly in light of reports of low CSF levels of 5-HIAA in individuals with impulsive charac- NE has been hypothesized as mediating aspects of arousal, teristics, such as those attempting suicide (39–41), lend attention, and sensation seeking in individuals with PG (38, further support to a central role for 5-HT in the underlying 57,58,68). Additional data emerging from pharmaco- ripheral, and central levels of NE or the NE metabolites therapy trials, neuroimaging studies, and investigations into MHPG and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and found the monoamine oxidase (MAO) function (see later) are also PG subjects to have higher CSF levels of MHPG and higher consistent with 5-HT dysfunction in PG. In a subsequent report, the are needed to define the nature and extent of 5-HT pertur- investigators found in the same group of 17 men with PG bations in PG more precisely, particularly as they relate to originally studied, scores of extraversion on the Eysenck specific aspects of PG (e. More recently, increased CSF 1728 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress levels of NE and MHPG were found in a second group of bling-concentrated days, differences in blood pressure mea- men with PG (59), although a subsequent report from the surements did not reach statistical significance. A separate same research team reported findings of decreased MHPG study found no evidence of abnormal cortisol responsivity in men with PG when correcting for CSF flow. Independently, CSF levels of corticotropin-releasing Pachinko players found NE system changes under gaming hormone and corticotropin were found not to be signifi- conditions (67). Specifically, blood levels of NE were found cantly different between healthy and PG-affected men (57). Peripheral MAO tion of -aminobutyric acid (GABA) input to DA neurons derived from platelets is of the MAO B subtype and has in the ventral tegmental area (83,84), studies exploring - been suggested to be an indicator of 5-HT function (70, endorphin function in gaming behaviors has been explored. Decreased platelet MAO activity has of -endorphins were found to be elevated during Pachinko been reported in association with impulsive behaviors (72, play, peaking during the start of "fever. Individuals with PG have mOR antagonist naltrexone in the treatment of PG (see also been reported to exhibit decreased platelet MAO activi- later), suggest further investigation into opioid function in ties (78,79). In one study, 15 men with PG were found to PG are warranted.
Single-night administration seems to produce sedation cheap 160mg malegra fxt plus fast delivery erectile dysfunction statistics age. The elimination half-life of diphenhydramine very little effect (116) buy cheap malegra fxt plus 160 mg online erectile dysfunction doctors in richmond va. Subjective sleep ratings showed no ranges from 3 to 5 hours, within increases in elderly persons. Trials of melatonin in elderly people have Despite their widespread use, a large body of well-docu- ranged from 1 to 21 days. The most consistent effect is mented research does not support the efficacy of antihista- reduced sleep latency with some evidence as well for reduced mines. Diphenhydramine 50 mg, improved subjective rat- nighttime wakefulness using sustained-released preparations ings of sleep quality, sleep time, sleep latency, and (119–122). In a carefully designed 14-day crossover trial, wakefulness after sleep onset in middle-aged subjects with immediate- and sustained-release melatonin were associated insomnia (103). Amore recent study comparing the effects with shortened sleep latency, but no change in sleep time, of lorazepam versus a combination of lorazepam plus di- sleep efficiency, wakefulness, or subjective sleep measures phenhydramine showed a slight advantage for the combina- (123). On most sleep measures, the two drug carefully evaluated. Melatonin has effects on reproductive preparations were fairly similar. Studies of antihistamines cycles in several mammalian species, and reports have indi- in elderly people demonstrate subjective sedative properties cated the potential for worsening of sleep apnea and im- comparable in magnitude to those of benzodiazepines and paired cognitive and psychomotor performance during day- confirmed by effects such as increased sleep time, decreased time administration. There are also some concerns regarding awakening, and shorter sleep latency (105,106). Adverse effects of antihistamines include a range of cog- nitive and performance impairments (107). The anticholin- Valerian Extract ergic effects of these medications may be of particular con- cern in elderly subjects. The relative safety and efficacy of Valerian extract is one of the most widely used herbal reme- antihistamines with more sustained use has not been exam- dies for insomnia. They contain a number of potentially active compounds, including sesquiterpenes and valepotriates. Data regarding its efficacy and safety have in these preparations (124,125). The study designs, doses, and outcome mea- cross the blood–brain barrier, so this is an unlikely mecha- sures used in melatonin trials have been quite variable and nism of action. Other potential actions include affinity for may contribute to inconsistent findings (108). In particular, four double-blind pla- on sleep and wakefulness may result from interaction with cebo-controlled studies have examined doses of 400 to 900 1940 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress mg of valerian extract over periods of time from 1 to 8 days, With regard to behavioral treatments, one of the major and in diverse subject populations ranging from healthy challenges is designing well manualized and 'exportable' young adults to elderly insomniacs (126–129). Subjective treatments that can be applied more readily in a variety of effects include decreased sleep latency and improved sleep treatment settings, including primary care settings. One study also reported decreased studies have begun to examine the optimal combination of subjectively rated awakenings (126). Findings from these studies are hampered by small be developed. These studies do not demonstrate the effi- from basic neuroscience sources. For instance, recent evi- cacy of valerian extract in most groups of individuals with dence has accumulated regarding the role of adenosine as primary insomnia. Relative underacti- Clinical studies have suggested a generally favorable side vity of adenosinergic neurotransmission could potentially effect profile for valerian extract; however, the sedative ef- result in reduced sleep drive. Finally, done regarding its consequences for health and role func- recent findings regarding the role of orexin in sleep/wake tioning.
Biol Psychiatry 1998; of response to behavioral therapy versus pharmacotherapy in 43:623–640 purchase malegra fxt plus 160 mg mastercard men's health erectile dysfunction pills. In Oldham JM cheap malegra fxt plus 160mg with amex erectile dysfunction causes symptoms and treatment, Riba MB, Tas- phy and neuropsychological test measures in adolescents with man A, eds. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, obsessive-compulsive disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1997;21: 91. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1997;21: and cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia. Abnormalities of the signal intensity in treatment naive pediatric obsessive-compul- left temporal lobe and thought disorder in schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1999; quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. MRI volumetric mea- nucleus size in obsessive-compulsive disorder: detection with surement of amygdala and hippocampus in temporal lobe epi- magnetic resonance imaging. The neuromorphometry of affective nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder assessed by quantita- disorders. Neuroanatomical lamic volumes of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder pa- abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder determined with tients taking paroxetine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57(5): quantitative x-ray computed tomography. Computed tomography nuclei volumes of first-episode schizophrenic patients taking and neurological soft signs in obsessive-compulsive disorder. A short echo 1H compulsive disorder patients taking paroxetine. J Am Acad Child spectroscopy and volumetric MRI study of the corpus striatum Adolesc Psychiatry 2000;39(9):1096–1103. Event-related functional struction techniques from magnetic resonance images. Spatiotemporal imaging of an adolescent with obsessive-compulsive disorder and atypical human brain activity using functional MRI constrained magnet- anorexia nervosa. Generalized dystonia and obsessive-compulsive Acad Sci USA 1998;95:8945–8950. Bicaudate ratio as a nance signal changes in the putamen. J Nerv Ment Dis 1995; measure of caudate volume on MR images. Retrocallosal white bodies: tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. J Dev Behav matter abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive dis- Pediatr 1994;15:421–425. Cerebral structural abnor- neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infec- malities in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a quantitative mor- tions: clinical description of the first 50 cases. Am J Psychiatry phometric magnetic resonance imaging study. Age and sex effects for affect ties of frontal neocortex in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Computerized volume mea- Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:913–919. Ipsilateral subcortical on discrimination learning and performance.
Fur- ularly interesting finding is that socially isolated primates thermore quality 160 mg malegra fxt plus erectile dysfunction urologist, as noted earlier discount malegra fxt plus 160 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction treatment hypnosis, in patients with developmental develop striatal cellular disorganization together with stereo- disability, there are significant positive associations between typic and self-injurious behaviors (24). The neuroanatomy the occurrence of self-injury, stereotypy, and compulsions of early social isolation and other developmental stressors (27). Nevertheless, relatively few studies have directly ex- would seem to be a promising area for further investigation, plored the role of serotonin in mediating SIB in such pa- one that may have direct relevance to some of the clinical tients. There is, however, some evidence of the value of SSRIs in the treatment of SIB in developmental disabled patients. SMD IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY Aretrospective review suggested that response of SIB in such patients was higher for SSRIs and was not predicted Phenomenology by comorbid depressive symptoms (30). Indeed, both open SIB in patients with developmental disabilities may fall and controlled (31) studies have confirmed the efficacy of within the diagnostic category of SMD. This disorder is SSRIs in the treatment of SIB in developmental disabilities. Examples include body rocking, in the mediation of SIB in mental retardation, questions hand waving, head banging, and skin picking. The DSM- remain about whether the effects of these agents are not IV provides a subtype 'with self-injurious behavior,' to be 'downstream' of their primary actions and about their used when bodily damage requires medical treatment. Several methodologies are available for delineat- have reviewed this disorder elsewhere (25,26), and draw ing different aspects of serotonin dysfunction in psychiatric extensively on those reviews here. It must 'markedly interfere with been useful in showing that serotonin plays a specific role normal activities' or result in 'bodily injury that requires in several disorders characterized by unwanted repetitive medical treatment. Asimilarly designed ity the behavior must be sufficiently severe to be a focus of study in mental retardation patients with SIB would be of treatment, and the behavior must persist for at least 4 weeks. The DSM-IV also states that stereotypic behaviors in SMD It may be noted here that other agents with serotoniner- should not be better accounted for by the compulsions of gic effects have also been studied for the treatment of SIB obsessive-compulsive disorder, the stereotypies of pervasive in developmental disability (28,34). Buspirone (15 to 45 mg/day), a 5-HT1A agonist, always meet the rather strict DSM-IV criteria for SMD. Eltoprazine, a selective rious, and compulsive behaviors appear to be correlated in 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B agonist, has yielded conflicting evi- such patients (27). Certainly, the relatively large body of dence of efficacy. Although early studies in this area suffered Reports of the incidence of SIB in patients with develop- from methodologic flaws, lithium has long been used with mental disability range from 3% to 46% (27,28). Head some apparent success in the treatment of SIB and aggressive banging, head and body hitting, eye gouging, biting, and behaviors in patients with mental retardation (28,34). Pro- scratching are the most common of these behaviors (29). Also, in a controlled study, pindolol (40 mg/ head banging or hitting may lead to cuts, bleeding, infec- day) was significantly more effective than placebo in 14 tion, retinal detachment, and blindness. Incidence of SIB patients with developmental disability and SIB (35). Dopamine blockers, however, are often successfully and institutionalization status (28). Preliminary evidence suggests that the atypical neuroleptics, which have Neurochemistry both dopaminergic and serotoninergic effects, may also be It has been argued that there is phenomenologic evidence useful in SIB and other target symptoms in this patient of similarities between SIB in patients with developmental population (36,37). Given their apparently favorable side- 1746 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress effect profile, controlled trials with such agents are war- ing behavior (hand licking and hair stroking) and SIB in- ranted. Increased plasma enkephalin levels in patients with devel- Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a congenital disorder opmental disability compared with normal controls have that affects approximately 1 in 10,000 newborns and is one been reported (38). Although this may support the excessive of the five commonest abnormalities seen in birth defect opioid hypothesis, it is also possible that decreased endoge- clinics (53a,53b).